- Buddh. Richtung
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia in Buddhism
Karma (Sanskrit, also karman, Pāli: Buddhist tradition, karma refers to action driven by intention (cetanā) which leads to future consequences. Those intentions are considered to be the determining factor in the kind of rebirth in samsara, the cycle of rebirth.) is a Sanskrit term that literally means "action" or "doing". In the
Der englische Artikel ist sehr umfassend. Ich habe versucht, bzw. versuche gerade, die verschiedenen Sichtweisen zu Karma in den verschiedenen Traditionen nachzuvollziehen, um zu verstehen, warum es so viele unterschiedliche Aussagen gibt.
Die folgenden Absätze entsprechen meinem Verständnis, das ich bisher für mehr oder weniger "universell buddhistisch" gehalten habe. Es macht für mich auch am meisten Sinn, entspricht meinen Vorstellungen. Das ist natürlich kein allgemeiner Maßstab, aber es ist für mich der Ausgangspunkt.
(Hervorhebungen fett im Fließtext sind von mir)
Indian Yogācāra traditionIn the Yogācāra philosophical tradition, one of the two principal Mahāyāna schools, the principle of karma was extended considerably. In the Yogācāra formulation, all experience without exception is said to result from the ripening of karma.[web 9] Karmic seeds (S. bija) are said to be stored in the "storehouse consciousness" (S. ālayavijñāna) until such time as they ripen into experience. The term vāsāna ("perfuming") is also used, and Yogācārins debated whether vāsāna and bija were essentially the same, the seeds were the effect of the perfuming, or whether the perfuming simply affected the seeds. The seemingly external world is merely a "by-product" (adhipati-phala) of karma. The conditioning of the mind resulting from karma is called saṃskāra.[web 10]
The Treatise on Action (Karmasiddhiprakaraṇa), also by Vasubandhu, treats the subject of karma in detail from the Yogācāra perspective. According to scholar Dan Lusthaus,
According to Bronkhorst, whereas in earlier systems it "was not clear how a series of completely mental events (the deed and its traces) could give rise to non-mental, material effects," with the (purported) idealism of the Yogācāra system this is not an issue.Vasubandhu's Viṃśatikā (Twenty Verses) repeatedly emphasizes in a variety of ways that karma is intersubjective and that the course of each and every stream of consciousness (vijñāna-santāna, i.e., the changing individual) is profoundly influenced by its relations with other consciousness streams.
In Mahāyāna traditions, karma is not the sole basis of rebirth. The rebirths of bodhisattvas after the seventh stage (S. bhūmi) are said to be consciously directed for the benefit of others still trapped in saṃsāra. Thus, theirs are not uncontrolled rebirths.
Tibetan BuddhismMain article: Karma in Tibetan Buddhism
In Tibetan Buddhism, the teachings on karma belong to the preliminary teachings, that turn the mind towards the Buddhist .
In the tradition, negative past karma may be "purified" through such practices as on Vajrasattva because they both are the mind's psychological phenomenon. The performer of the action, after having purified the karma, does not experience the negative results he or she otherwise would have. Engaging in the ten negative actions out of selfishness and delusions hurts all involved. Otherwise, loving others, receives love; whereas; people with closed hearts may be prevented from happiness. One good thing about karma is that it can be purified through confession, if the thoughts become positive. Within Guru Yoga seven branch offerings practice, confession is the antidote to aversion.